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Kryptoaktíva a Initial Coin Offerings (ICOs)

Čo sú kryptoaktíva

KryptoaktívaKryptoaktíva sú digitálne aktíva založené na kryptografii (šifrovaní), ktoré sú decentralizované (t. j. nie sú vydávané príslušným orgánom) a väčšinou fungujú na tzv. blockchainovej technológii. Ide zároveň o súhrnné označenie pre elektronické „mince”, resp. „tokeny“. Ako známe príklady kryptoaktív možno uviesť Bitcoin, Ether, Litecoin a Ripple. Mnohé kryptoaktíva vznikajú procesom označovaným ako mining (ťažba).

Kryptoaktíva

Druhy kryptoaktív

Kryptoaktíva, resp. elektronické „mince” a „tokeny“, môžu mať rôzny charakter a účel:

  • virtuálne aktíva - nie sú s nimi spojené žiadne práva a slúžia len na vymeniteľnosť za oficiálne uznané meny, iné virtuálne aktíva alebo existujúce tovary, resp. služby,
  • utility tokeny - možno ich použiť napríklad na budúcu kúpu služieb alebo produktov poskytovaných osobou, ktorá ich vytvorila,
  • investment tokeny - môžu oprávňovať investora na riadení alebo na podiel na majetku, resp. budúcom zisku osoby, ktorá ich vytvorila.

Obsah:« naspäť na FinTech

  • I. Čo je Initial Coin Offerings (ICOs)

  • II. Informácia pre spotrebiteľov

  • III. Legislatíva

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Dokumenty medzinárodných štandardizačných inštitúcií

Európske orgány dohľadu

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12/07/2019 ESMA Report - Licensing of FinTech business models
05/2019 ECB Crypto-Assets: Implications for financial stability, monetary policy, and payments and market infrastructures
09/01/2019 ESMA Advice - Initial Coin Offerings and Crypto-Assets
19/10/2018 Securities and Markets Stakeholder Group advice to ESMA Own Initiative Report on Initial Coin Offerings and Crypto-Assets
08/03/2018 EC: FinTech action plan: For a more competitive and innovative European financial sector
12/02/2018 Joint ESAs Warning on Virtual Currencies
08/02/2018 ECB: Virtual or virtueless? The evolution of money in the digital age
13/11/2017 ESMA highlights ico risks for investors and firms
07/02/2017 ESMA Report - The Distributed Ledger Technology Applied to Securities Markets
11/08/2016 EBA Opinion on the EU Commission’s proposal to bring Virtual Currencies into the scope of Directive (EU) 2015/849 (4AMLD)
04/07/2014 EBA Opinion on Virtual Currencies

Medzinárodné organizácie v oblasti regulácie finančného trhu

Dátum Názov
28/04/2021 Supervising cryptoassets form ani-money laundering
07/07/2020 FATF Report to G20 on So-called Stablecoins
07/07/2020 FATF 12 Month Review of Revised FATF Standards - Virtual Assets and VASPs
14/04/2020 FSB Addressing the regulatory, supervisory and oversight challenges raised by global stablecoin arrangements Consultative document
23/03/2020 IOSCO Global Stablecoin Initiatives
12/02/2020 IOSCO Issues, Risks and Regulatory Considerations Relating to Crypto-Asset Trading Platforms
30/01/2020 BIS Policy responses to fintech: a cross-country overview
17/01/2020 OECD The Tokenisation of Assets and Potential Implications for Financial Markets
12/12/2019 BIS Designing a prudential treatment for crypto-assets
18/10/2019 FSB Regulatory issues of stablecoins
  IOSCO - Regulators' Statements on Initial Coin Offerings
10/2019 G7 Working Group on Stablecoins Investigating the impact of global stablecoins
21/06/2019 FATF Guidance for a Risk-Based Approach to Virtual Assets and Virtual Asset Service Providers
31/05/2019 FSB Crypto-assets Work underway, regulatory approaches and potential gaps
28/05/2019 IOSCO Issues, Risks and Regulatory Considerations Relating to Crypto-Asset Trading Platforms, Report of the Board of IOSCO
05/04/2019 FSB Crypto-assets regulators directory
22/02/2019 FATF Public Statement – Mitigating Risks from Virtual Assets
14/02/2019 FSB FinTech and market structure in financial services: Market developments and potential financial stability implications
14/01/2019 OECD Initial Coin Offerings (ICOs) for SME Financing
10/10/2018 FSB Crypto-asset markets Potential channels for future financial stability implications
24/07/2018 FATF G20 commitment to implement FATF standards and support for work on crypto assets
16/07/2018 FSB Crypto-assets Report to the G20 on work by the FSB and standard-setting bodies
12/03/2018 BIS Central bank digital currencies
08/12/2017 IOSCO Research Report on Financial Technologies (Fintech)
27/06/2017 FSB Financial Stability Implications from FinTech Supervisory and Regulatory Issues that Merit Authorities’ Attention
11/2015 BIS Digital currencies
06/2015 FATF Guidance for a Risk-Based Approach to Virtual Currencies